### Electrostatics Coulomb's Law Gauss Theorem Electric Field Potential Flux Notes With JEE NEET MCQS Physics Class 12 CBSE Study Material Full Chapter Download pdf-ANAND CLASSES

# Electrostatics Coulomb's Law Gauss Theorem Electric Field Potential Flux Notes With JEE NEET MCQS Physics Class 12 CBSE Study Material Full Chapter Download pdf-ANAND CLASSES

# Coulomb's Law

The force between charged bodies is no contact force. It exists over a length, and all electrical interaction has a force embedded in it. The charges and distance between the charged bodies are the factors that determine the power and influence of the force. The same force exists, whether it’s a plastic comb attracting paper pieces or two electrons repelling each other.

## What Is Coulomb’s Law?

According to **Coulomb’s law**, the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It acts along the line joining the two charges considered to be point charges.

## What Is 1 Coulomb of Charge?

A Coulomb is a charge which repels an equal charge of the same sign with a force of 9×109 N when the charges are one metre apart in a vacuum. Coulomb force is the conservative mutual and internal force.

The value of Îµo is 8.86 × 10-12 C2/Nm2

**Note:** Coulomb force is true only for static charges.

## Coulomb’s Law – Conditions for Stability

If q is slightly displaced towards A, FA increases in magnitude while FB decreases in magnitude. Now, the net force on q is toward A, so it will not return to its original position. So for axial displacement, the equilibrium is unstable.

If q is displaced perpendicular to AB, the force FA and FB bring the charge to its original position. So, for perpendicular displacement, the equilibrium is stable.

## Key Points on Coulomb’s Law

**1.** If the force between two charges in two different media is the same for different separations, then Kr2 = constant or K1r12 = K2r22

**2.** If the force between two charges separated by a distance ‘r0’ in a vacuum is the same as the force between the same charges separated by a distance ‘r’ in a medium, then from Coulomb’s law, Kr2 = r02

**3.** Between two electrons separated by a certain distance: Electrical force/Gravitational force = 1042

**4.** Between two protons separated by a certain distance: Electrical force/Gravitational force = 1036

**5.** Between a proton and an electron separated by a certain distance: Electrical force/Gravitational force = 1039

**6.** The relationship between the velocity of light, the permeability of free space and the permittivity of free space is given by the expression c = 1 / √ (Î¼oÎµo )

## Limitations of Coulomb’s Law

- The law is applicable only for the point charges at rest.
- Coulomb’s law can only be applied in those cases where the inverse square law is obeyed.
- It is difficult to implement Coulomb’s law where charges are in arbitrary shape because, in such cases, we cannot determine the distance between the charges.
- The law can’t be used directly to calculate the charge on big planets.

## Frequently Asked Questions on Coulomb’s Law

### State Coulomb’s inverse-square law in electrostatics.

The electrostatic force of attraction or repulsion between two stationary point charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

### What are the limitations of Coulomb’s law?

Coulomb’s law holds good for stationary point charges.

Coulomb’s law is not universal, as it depends on the properties of the intervening medium.

### Is the electrostatic force between two point charges a central force?

Yes. The electrostatic force between two point charges always acts along the line joining the two charges. Hence, it is a central force.

### What is one Coulomb of charge?

One Coulomb of charge is that charge which, when placed at rest in a vacuum at a distance of one metre from an equal and similar stationary charge, repels it and is repelled by it with a force of 9 x 109 Newton.

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